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Book Title: Dwukropek|
The author of the book: Wisława Szymborska
The size of the: 4.23 MB
City - Country: No data
Date of issue: 2005
ISBN 13: 9788385568766
Format files: PDF
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Reader ratings: 4.4
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Co sugeruje dwukropek? Przykuwa do siebie roztargnioną myśl, zapowiada, że zaraz pojawi się to, co najistotniejsze. Daje poczucie stabilności i bezpieczeństwa niejako obiecując, że to, co ważne, najważniejsze słowa i rzeczy, myśli i znaczenia zostaną skrupulatnie wyliczone.
Z "Dwukropkiem" Wisławy Szymborskiej jest inaczej. Wszystko, co najważniejsze, pojawia się przed nim: to, że nie ma większego znaczenia dla świata, czy się jest, czy się nie jest. Czy jest się tym, kim się jest, czy właśnie kimś innym. Czy wszystkim rządzi ślepy przypadek, czy nieznośnie precyzyjny determinizm. Obecność i nieobecność są światu doskonale obojętne, a indywidualność i poszczególność różnych istnień niewiele dla niego znaczy. Ową poszczególność i niepowtarzalność ocalić może jedynie poezja. O tym właśnie mówi "Dwukropek". O chwilowości, zdarzeniowości, przemijalności, perspektywiczności i o tym, że największe znaczenie ma niejednoznaczność, bo jednoznaczność jest nieodwołalnie śmiercią poezji. Jej życie i żywioł to wielość sensów, wiele sposobów na mówienie o sobie i o świecie, nieustające stawianie znaków zapytania. Dwukropek pojawia się dopiero na końcu.
To miejsce na odpowiedź świata. To milczenie, które jest jego jedyną odpowiedzią.
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Read information about the authorWisława Szymborska (Polish pronunciation: [vʲisˈwava ʂɨmˈbɔrska], born July 2, 1923 in Kórnik, Poland) is a Polish poet, essayist and translator. She was awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Literature. In Poland, her books reach sales rivaling prominent prose authors—although she once remarked in a poem entitled "Some like poetry" [Niektórzy lubią poezję] that no more than two out of a thousand people care for the art.
Szymborska frequently employs literary devices such as irony, paradox, contradiction, and understatement, to illuminate philosophical themes and obsessions. Szymborska's compact poems often conjure large existential puzzles, touching on issues of ethical import, and reflecting on the condition of people both as individuals and as members of human society. Szymborska's style is succinct and marked by introspection and wit.
Szymborska's reputation rests on a relatively small body of work: she has not published more than 250 poems to date. She is often described as modest to the point of shyness. She has long been cherished by Polish literary contemporaries (including Czesław Miłosz) and her poetry has been set to music by Zbigniew Preisner. Szymborska became better known internationally after she was awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize. Szymborska's work has been translated into many European languages, as well as into Arabic, Hebrew, Japanese and Chinese.
In 1931, Szymborska's family moved to Kraków. She has been linked with this city, where she studied, worked, and still resides, ever since.
When World War II broke out in 1939, she continued her education in underground lessons. From 1943, she worked as a railroad employee and managed to avoid being deported to Germany as a forced labourer. It was during this time that her career as an artist began with illustrations for an English-language textbook. She also began writing stories and occasional poems.
Beginning in 1945, Szymborska took up studies of Polish language and literature before switching to sociology at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. There she soon became involved in the local writing scene, and met and was influenced by Czesław Miłosz. In March 1945, she published her first poem Szukam słowa ("I seek the word") in the daily paper Dziennik Polski; her poems continued to be published in various newspapers and periodicals for a number of years. In 1948 she quit her studies without a degree, due to her poor financial circumstances; the same year, she married poet Adam Włodek, whom she divorced in 1954. At that time, she was working as a secretary for an educational biweekly magazine as well as an illustrator.
During Stalinism in Poland in 1953 she participated in the defamation of Catholic priests from Kraków who were groundlessly condemned by the ruling Communists to death. Her first book was to be published in 1949, but did not pass censorship as it "did not meet socialist requirements." Like many other intellectuals in post-war Poland, however, Szymborska remained loyal to the PRL official ideology early in her career, signing political petitions and praising Stalin, Lenin and the realities of socialism. This attitude is seen in her debut collection Dlatego żyjemy ("That is what we are living for"), containing the poems Lenin and Młodzieży budującej Nową Hutę ("For the Youth that Builds Nowa Huta"), about the construction of a Stalinist industrial town near Kraków. She also became a member of the ruling Polish United Workers' Party.
Like many Polish intellectuals initially close to the official party line, Szymborska gradually grew estranged from socialist ideology and renounced her earlier political work. Although she did not officially leave the party until 1966, she began to establish contacts with dissidents. As early as 1957, she befriended Jerzy Giedroyc, the editor of the influential Paris-based emigré journal Kultura, to which she also contributed. In 1964 s
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